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Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles Office de Tourisme. Archived from the original on A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar's assassination Appian, BC III.

Lexikon der Antike, Vol. En Tià havia nascut a Viladamat Alt Empordà el La notícia és trista i molt dura. Havia compartit amb ell taules rodones, sessions de treball, projectes i accions, sempre en defensa dels que necessitaven més defensa justament perquè, en ser els que tenien més raó, també eren els que estaven en més perill de ser trepitjats, castigats, condemnats.

En Tià avorria la injustícia, denunciava la legislació antiterrorista espanyola que ha permès -i permet- cometre tota mena de barbaritats i perseguir els adversaris polítics o socials. En Tià els va fer costat incondicionalment, amb el dret i amb el seu lliurament personal, amb arguments i amb afecte envers els detinguts, empresonats i torturats.

En Tià va estar sempre al seu costat. En Tià ha mort. La Mikado R fut un type de locomotive à vapeur dit "unifié" de la SNCF qui fut largement utilisé sur l'ensemble du réseau français de à Cette machine fut également à l'origine de changements dans le travail des cheminots, en rompant l'association locomotive-mécanicien-chauffeur; on instaura là la conduite en banalité. Locomotive R en gare de Lons-le-Saunier Jura le 1er aout À la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le manque de locomotives et l'incapacité de l'industrie française, en cours de reconstruction, à livrer rapidement un grand nombre de machines neuves imposa de recourir aux constructeurs américains et canadiens.

Les choix techniques faits à cette occasion bousculaient le conservatisme industriel ferroviaire français de l'époque et allaient se révéler judicieux. C'est la firme Baldwin Locomotive Works, qui dans l'urgence de l'époque dessina les plans de ces machines, en modifiant pour le réseau français une locomotive qui circulait déjà depuis plusieurs années aux États-Unis, la Mikado USRA modèle léger. Les principales adaptations portèrent sur: C'est ainsi qu'une commande de locomotives tous services mixtes fut passée en février pour constituer la première tranche: Ce sont les firmes: Une fois le financement rendu possible, la seconde tranche, les R à , est commandée auprès des mêmes firmes, secondées par des constructeurs canadiens: Ces machines étaient alors majoritairement prévues pour être chauffées au fuel fuel lourd préchauffé et non au charbon comme les précédentes.

Les machines au fuel assurèrent un meilleur service et furent de ce fait plus sollicitées que celles au charbon. L'introduction massive de machines chauffées au fuel s'explique également par le fait que dans l'immédiat après-guerre, le charbon de qualité était très demandé et que la SNCF en consommait annuellement 9 millions de tonnes.

Le fuel permettait donc des économies de charbon, même si dans de nombreux dépôts il s'agissait d'une véritable révolution. L'autonomie permise par le fuel km au lieu de km explique aussi l'usage plus intensif des machines. Les vaporistes parlent de "mazoutières" ou de "charbonnières" selon le combustible employé; les machines chauffées au fuel, étaient aussi surnommées "les goudronneuses" par les équipes de conduite.

Après le second conflit mondial, les constructeurs américains qui furent "boostés" par l'effort de guerre, se retrouvèrent à la tête de moyens de production très modernes.

L'organisation des chaînes de montage des locomotives s'apparentait à ce qu'il se faisait dans l'industrie automobile. C'est ainsi que de juillet à mai les R de la première tranche ont été construites en onze mois seulement. On peut cependant observer d'importants écarts sur le nombre de machines produites mensuellement. A titre de comparaison toute relative, l'industrie française étant très affaiblie après la guerre il aura fallu quatre ans, de juin à juillet , au constructeur Schneider pour livrer les trente-cinq P à la SNCF.

La première locomotive, la R 1 construite par Lima, sortit des ateliers le 30 juillet La R fut la première à être débarquée en France le 17 novembre au port de Marseille. La dernière de la série, la R , sortit des ateliers de la Canadian Locomotive Company en juillet et fut débarquée le 5 septembre au port de Cherbourg.

Dix-sept locomotives les R à et la R disparurent en mer dans le naufrage du navire norvégien Belpamela, le 11 avril , pris dans une violente tempête au large de Terre-Neuve. De ce fait, sur les locomotives commandées initialement, seulement entrèrent en service sur le réseau français. Pour la SNCF, ce type de machine constituait une petite révolution: Quant aux châssis en barres, et aux coussinets des boîtes d'essieux des R 1 à , ils se révélèrent tout aussi irréprochables, ce qui en fit à la fois des machines performantes et d'un entretien économique.

Faciles à conduire, elles offraient un confort relatif mais nouveau aux mécaniciens et aux chauffeurs. Les abris étaient de véritables cabines de conduite fermées, dotées d'un confort et d'une ergonomie jusqu'alors inconnus à la SNCF: C'est le 19 octobre que circula la dernière R encore en service à la SNCF, la R du dépôt de Vénissieux, en assurant un train spécial aller et retour entre Lyon et Veynes. Quatre machines du dépôt de Narbonne furent louées aux chemins de fer grecs de novembre à avril The ship currently known as the MV Doulos Phos was the world's oldest active ocean-faring passenger ship, having plied the world's oceans from the time of her building in until being retired from cruising service at the end of She is now owned by Mr.

Good Books for All , and was used as a floating bookshop. The Doulos ended her final cruise in late at Singapore, with the ship being handed over to her new owners on March 18, The Panamanian company Naviera San Miguel SA acquired the Medina in ; they renamed the ship the Roma, and converted her into a passenger ship with cabins for people, and dormitories for an additional people.

She carried passengers between Italy and Argentina. In , the Franca C was adapted into a cruise liner, principally cruising the Mediterranean. Her first director was George Miley — followed by Dale Rhoton — Under Gute Bücher für Alle ownership, she was manned by a volunteer crew and made sea port visits worldwide.

On August 11, , during the final night of the MV Doulos' stop in the southern Philippine port of Zamboanga City, two of her foreign crewmembers were killed when a grenade thrown by members of the Abu Sayyaf Islamist separatist group[2] exploded on stage during a performance by its Christian volunteers. The MV Doulos held the biggest floating library in the world. Normally there were somewhere between to books on the shelves and half a million in the hold.

She made her last world tour in with a planned de-commissioning in before the SOLAS regulations were to be introduced. However, a survey conducted by the ship's classification society RINA found that there were numerous significant problems and works with the ship's machinery, structure, and systems that would need to have been completed by December 31, in order for the ship's certificates to be re-issued and the ship to continue sailing.

Because the shipyard servicing the Doulos would not accept the ship for repairs until September and the cost of the work would be a total in excess of 10 million euros, and the limited ministry that the MV Doulos would have after the repairs, OM decided to end Doulos Ministry at the end of , instead of as originally planned. On March 18, , Doulos was handed over to her new owner, Mr. She will be renamed Doulos Phos, or Servant Light, in this process. Decks A and B will be used as the hotel part of Doulos Phos.

Two restaurants capable of seating people each will be located on the Promenade deck where her dining room originally was and the boat deck. Other future amenities include a deli, cafe, wine and juice bars, a bookshop, banquet hall, meeting rooms, a bible school and a maritime museum.

An amphitheater seating up to 70 people has been proposed. Retrieved March 22, A Salute to the MV Doulos". Gute Bücher für Alle's "Remember Doulos" page, with statistics, capacities, and historical information.

Posta in disarmo a Singapore nel , fu acquistata da un imprenditore per essere preservata ed utilizzata principalmente come hotel galleggiante con il nome di Doulos Phos.

La nave fu costruita nel ai cantieri navali di Newport News, in Virginia, per la Mallory Steamship Company, entrando in servizio nel settembre dello stesso anno con il nome di Medina. Originariamente era adibita al trasporto di frutta e verdura lungo la costa occidentale statunitense, compito che svolse per i successivi 34 anni. Le uniche interruzioni furono rappresentate dai due conflitti mondiali, durante i quali la Medina fu utilizzata per trasportare armamenti e rifornimenti verso l'Europa: Ritornata in Europa e poi in Italia grazie ad un noleggio del Lloyd Triestino, fu arrestata nel porto di Genova a causa del non completo pagamento ai cantieri dei lavori di conversione.

Furono quindi compiuti degli importanti lavori di ristrutturazione, ancora una volta eseguiti ai Cantieri del Muggiano di La Spezia, durante i quali il motore a vapore originario fu sostituito con un Diesel FIAT 6 cilindri a due tempi, portando la velocità della nave a 15 nodi[6]. Nel la compagnia decise di destinare la nave al traffico crocieristico.

La Franca C fu quindi sottoposta ad importanti lavori alle OARN di Genova, dove fu trasformata nella prima nave da crociera al mondo con sistemazioni di una sola classe[7]. Il numero di passeggeri trasportabili fu ridotto a e l'intera nave fu dotata di impianti di aria condizionata, mentre gli interni furono ridisegnati dal famoso architetto Nino Zoncada[7].

I lavori furono conclusi a luglio e a novembre la nave prese servizio nei Caraibi, alternando negli anni successivi il servizio invernale nei Caraibi a crociere estive nel Mediterraneo. In questa veste la nave divenne molto popolare tra i crocieristi, anche grazie al fatto di essere stata la prima nave a sperimentare le offerte di pacchetti "tutto incluso" che comprendevano volo e servizi a terra[7]. Nel la Franca C rimase in Europa, svolgendo un programma di crociere ridotto e venendo dotata di un nuovo motore Diesel FIAT 18 cilindri a quattro tempi; fu inoltre eseguita una nuova ristrutturazione degli interni.

La Franca C rimase in servizio per Costa per altri sette anni, prima di essere posta in disarmo e messa in vendita. Il 4 novembre la nave fu acquistata dalla Gute Bücher für Alle, un'associazione cristiana tedesca, con il proposito di trasformarla in una libreria galleggiante con scopi benefici. La nave, rinominata Doulos termine greco con il significato di "servo"[3] , fu sottoposta a lavori di ristrutturazione a Brema per trasformarla nella più estesa libreria galleggiante al mondo, composta principalmente da testi cristiani e sul cristianesimo.

L'anno successivo la Doulos dovette essere sottoposta ad importanti lavori di manutenzione, che comportarono la completa revisione dell'impianto elettrico e diverse riparazioni; i lavori, che durarono sei mesi, furono compiuti a Città del Capo, in buona parte da volontari[10]. Nel marzo la nave fu acquistata dalla BizNaz Resources International Pte Ltd di Eric Saw, che intende utilizzarla come nave albergo a Singapore con il nome di Doulos Phos e preservarla; a tale scopo sono stati iniziati dei lavori di ristrutturazione.

Il nome originario, Medina, faceva riferimento a un fiume nel Texas[2]. URL consultato il 7 febbraio versione archiviata il 17 giugno René François Ghislain Magritte Lessines, 21 novembre — Bruxelles, 15 agosto è stato un pittore belga. Insieme a Paul Delvaux è considerato il maggiore esponente del surrealismo in Belgio e uno dei più originali esponenti europei dell'intero movimento. In passato si è usato ridurre parte dell'opera magrittiana a una semplice interpretazione psicologica secondo la quale alcune delle sue opere, quelle in cui i volti sono coperti da lenzuola, sono da collegare direttamente allo shock avuto dal pittore a quattordici anni, quando avrebbe visto leggenda infondata come si accerterà più tardi recuperare il cadavere della madre suicida nel fiume Sambre, coperta appunto da un panno attorno alla testa.

Ma René Magritte, detto anche le saboteur tranquille per la sua capacità di insinuare dubbi sul reale attraverso la rappresentazione del reale stesso, non avvicina il reale per interpretarlo, né per ritrarlo, ma per mostrarne il mistero indefinibile. Intenzione del suo lavoro è alludere al tutto come mistero e non definirlo.

Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace were historically Alemannic-speaking, hence the city's Germanic name. With , inhabitants in , Strasbourg's metropolitan area only the part of the metropolitan area on French territory is the ninth largest in France. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of , inhabitants in Strasbourg is immersed in the Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a bridge of unity between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the University of Strasbourg, currently the second largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture.

Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation. The port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany.

The city's Gallicized name Lower Alsatian: Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which also forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.

The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which here flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres 2. The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. The city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between metres ft and metres ft above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km 12 mi to the west and the Black Forest 25 km 16 mi to the east.

This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, and major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks.

The city is some kilometres mi east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies approximately kilometres mi to the north, or kilometres mi as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some kilometres 62 mi to the south, or kilometres 93 mi by river.

In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as Oceanic Köppen climate classification Cfb , with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters.

Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling On average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature ever recorded was Strasbourg's location in the Rhine valley, sheltered from the dominant winds by the Vosges and Black Forest mountains, results in poor natural ventilation, making Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically polluted cities of France.

The first traces of human occupation in the environs of Strasbourg go back many thousands of years. It was permanently settled by proto-Celts around BC. Towards the end of the third century BC, it developed into a Celtic township with a market called "Argentorate". Drainage works converted the stilthouses to houses built on dry land. The Romans under Nero Claudius Drusus established a military outpost belonging to the Germania Superior Roman province at Strasbourg's current location, and named it Argentoratum.

Hence the town is commonly called Argentina in medieval Latin. The Roman camp was destroyed by fire and rebuilt six times between the first and the fifth centuries AD: It was under Trajan and after the fire of 97 that Argentoratum received its most extended and fortified shape.

It then included a cavalry section and covered an area of approximately 20 hectares. The centre of Argentoratum proper was situated on the Grande Île Cardo: The outline of the Roman "castrum" is visible in the street pattern in the Grande Ile.

This was where the largest burial places were situated, as well as the densest concentration of civilian dwelling places and commerces next to the camp. From the fourth century, Strasbourg was the seat of the Bishopric of Strasbourg made an Archbishopric in Archaeological excavations below the current Église Saint-Étienne in and unearthed the apse of a church dating back to the late fourth or early fifth century, considered to be the oldest church in Alsace. It is supposed that this was the first seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Strasbourg.

The Alemanni fought the Battle of Argentoratum against Rome in They were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their King Chonodomarius was taken prisoner. Early in the fifth century, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine, conquered, and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. In the fifth century Strasbourg was occupied successively by Alemanni, Huns, and Franks. In the ninth century it was commonly known as Strazburg in the local language, as documented in by the Oaths of Strasbourg.

This trilingual text contains, alongside texts in Latin and Old High German teudisca lingua , the oldest written variety of Gallo-Romance lingua romana clearly distinct from Latin, the ancestor of Old French.

The Oaths of Strasbourg is considered as marking the birth of the two countries of France and Germany with the division of the Carolingian Empire. The early history of Strasbourg consists of a long conflict between its bishop and its citizens. The citizens emerged victorious after the Battle of Oberhausbergen in , when King Philip of Swabia granted the city the status of an Imperial Free City.

A revolution in resulted in a broad-based city government with participation of the guilds, and Strasbourg declared itself a free republic. The deadly bubonic plague of was followed on 14 February by one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history: The time to leave the city was signalled by a municipal herald blowing the Grüselhorn see below, Museums, Musée historique ;. Construction on Strasbourg Cathedral began in the twelfth century, and it was completed in though, of the towers, only the north tower was built , becoming the World's Tallest Building, surpassing the Great Pyramid of Giza.

A few years later, Johannes Gutenberg created the first European moveable type printing press in Strasbourg. In July , an incident known as the Dancing Plague of struck residents of Strasbourg.

Around people were afflicted with dancing mania and danced constantly for weeks, most of them eventually dying from heart attack, stroke or exhaustion.

In the s during the Protestant Reformation, the city, under the political guidance of Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck and the spiritual guidance of Martin Bucer embraced the religious teachings of Martin Luther.

Their adherents established a Gymnasium, headed by Johannes Sturm, made into a University in the following century. The city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, and then the Augsburg Confession. Protestant iconoclasm caused much destruction to churches and cloisters, notwithstanding that Luther himself opposed such a practice. Strasbourg was a centre of humanist scholarship and early book-printing in the Holy Roman Empire, and its intellectual and political influence contributed much to the establishment of Protestantism as an accepted denomination in the southwest of Germany.

John Calvin spent several years as a political refugee in the city. The Strasbourg Councillor Sturm and guildmaster Matthias represented the city at the Imperial Diet of Speyer , where their protest led to the schism of the Catholic Church and the evolution of Protestantism. Together with four other free cities, Strasbourg presented the confessio tetrapolitana as its Protestant book of faith at the Imperial Diet of Augsburg in , where the slightly different Augsburg Confession was also handed over to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

After the reform of the Imperial constitution in the early sixteenth century and the establishment of Imperial Circles, Strasbourg was part of the Upper Rhenish Circle, a corporation of Imperial estates in the southwest of Holy Roman Empire, mainly responsible for maintaining troops, supervising coining, and ensuring public security.

After the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg around , the first printing offices outside the inventor's hometown Mainz were established around in Strasbourg by pioneers Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein. Subsequently, the first modern newspaper was published in Strasbourg in , when Johann Carolus received the permission by the City of Strasbourg to print and distribute a weekly journal written in German by reporters from several central European cities.

Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg.

After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September and proclaimed its annexation. This annexation was one of the direct causes of the brief and bloody War of the Reunions whose outcome left the French in possession. The French annexation was recognized by the Treaty of Ryswick The official policy of religious intolerance which drove most Protestants from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in was not applied in Strasbourg and in Alsace, because both had a special status as a province à l'instar de l'étranger effectif a kind of foreign province of the king of France.

Strasbourg Cathedral, however, was taken from the Lutherans to be returned to the Catholics as the French authorities tried to promote Catholicism wherever they could some other historic churches remained in Protestant hands. Its language also remained overwhelmingly German: Famous students included Goethe and Herder.

He led his company to victory at the battle of Valmy and saved the young French republic. He was later appointed Duke of Valmy by Napoléon in During this period Jean-Baptiste Kléber, also born in Strasbourg, led the French army to win several decisive victories. A statue of Kléber now stands in the centre of the city, at Place Kléber, and he is still one of the most famous French officers.

He was later appointed Marshal of France by Napoléon. Strasbourg's status as a free city was revoked by the French Revolution. Enragés, most notoriously Eulogius Schneider, ruled the city with an increasingly iron hand. During this time, many churches and monasteries were either destroyed or severely damaged. The cathedral lost hundreds of its statues later replaced by copies in the 19th century and in April , there was talk of tearing its spire down, on the grounds that it was against the principle of equality.

The tower was saved, however, when in May of the same year citizens of Strasbourg crowned it with a giant tin Phrygian cap. This artifact was later kept in the historical collections of the city until it was destroyed by the Germans in during the Franco-Prussian war. In , and , Napoléon Bonaparte and his first wife, Joséphine stayed in Strasbourg. Another royal guest was King Charles X of France in The bombardment of the city was meant to break the morale of the people of Strasbourg.

The gothic cathedral was damaged as well as the medieval church of Temple Neuf, the theatre, the city hall, the court of justice and many houses. At the end of the siege 10, inhabitants were left without shelter; over died, including civilians, and were injured, including 1, civilians. In , after the end of the war, the city was annexed to the newly established German Empire as part of the Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen under the terms of the Treaty of Frankfurt.

As part of Imperial Germany, Strasbourg was rebuilt and developed on a grand and representative scale, such as the Neue Stadt, or "new city" around the present Place de la République. Historian Rodolphe Reuss and Art historian Wilhelm von Bode were in charge of rebuilding the municipal archives, libraries and museums.

The University, founded in and suppressed during the French Revolution as a stronghold of German sentiment,[citation needed] was reopened in under the name Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität. A lost, then restored, symbol of modernity in Strasbourg: Following the defeat of the German empire in World War I and the abdication of the German Emperor, some revolutionary insurgents declared Alsace-Lorraine as an independent Republic, without preliminary referendum or vote.

On 11 November Armistice Day , communist insurgents proclaimed a "soviet government" in Strasbourg, following the example of Kurt Eisner in Munich as well as other German towns. French troops commanded by French general Henri Gouraud entered triumphantly in the city on 22 November. A major street of the city now bears the name of that date Rue du 22 Novembre which celebrates the entry of the French in the city.

In , following the Treaty of Versailles, the city was annexed by France in accordance with U. President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" without a referendum. The date of the assignment was retroactively established on Armistice Day. It is doubtful whether a referendum in Strasbourg would have ended in France's favour since the political parties striving for an autonomous Alsace or a connection to France accounted only for a small proportion of votes in the last Reichstag as well as in the local elections.

The movement started with the first election for the Reichstag; those elected were called "les députés protestataires", and until the fall of Bismarck in , they were the only deputies elected by the Alsatians to the German parliament demanding the return of those territories to France.

This could explain the difference between the rural vote and the one in Strasbourg. After the war, many Germans left Strasbourg and went back to Germany; some of them were denounced by the locals or expelled by the newly appointed authorities. The Saverne Affair was vivid in the memory among the Alsatians. In , Strasbourg became the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, previously located in Mannheim, one of the oldest European institutions.

It moved into the former Imperial Palace. When the Maginot Line was built, the Sous-secteur fortifié de Strasbourg fortified sub-sector of Strasbourg was laid out on the city's territory as a part of the Secteur fortifié du Bas-Rhin, one of the sections of the Line.

Blockhouses and casemates were built along the Grand Canal d'Alsace and the Rhine in the Robertsau forest and the port. Between the German invasion of Poland on 1 September and the Anglo-French declaration of War against the German Reich on 3 September , the entire city a total of , people was evacuated, like other border towns as well. Until the arrival of the Wehrmacht troops mid-June , the city was, for ten months, completely empty, with the exception of the garrisoned soldiers.

After the ceasefire following the Fall of France in June , Alsace was annexed to Germany and a rigorous policy of Germanisation was imposed upon it by the Gauleiter Robert Heinrich Wagner. When, in July , the first evacuees were allowed to return, only residents of Alsatian origin were admitted. The last Jews were deported on 15 July and the main synagogue, a huge Romanesque revival building that had been a major architectural landmark with its metre-high dome since its completion in , was set ablaze, then razed.

In September the first Alsatian resistance movement led by Marcel Weinum called La main noire The black hand was created. It was composed by a group of 25 young men aged from 14 to 18 years old who led several attacks against the German occupation.

The actions culminated with the attack of the Gauleiter Robert Wagner, the highest commander of Alsace directly under the order of Hitler.

In March , Marcel Weinum was prosecuted by the Gestapo and sentenced to be beheaded at the age of 18 in April in Stuttgart, Germany.

His last words will be: From the city was bombarded by Allied aircraft. While the First World War had not notably damaged the city, Anglo-American bombing caused extensive destruction in raids of which at least one was allegedly carried out by mistake.

He achieved the oath that he made with his soldiers, after the decisive Capture of Kufra. With the Oath of Kuffra, they swore to keep up the fight until the French flag flew over the Cathedral of Strasbourg. Many people from Strasbourg were incorporated in the German Army against their will, and were sent to the eastern front, those young men and women were called Malgré-nous. Many tried to escape from the incorporation, join the French Resistance, or desert the Wehrmacht but many couldn't because they were running the risk of having their families sent to work or concentration camps by the Germans.

Many of these men, especially those who did not answer the call immediately, were pressured to "volunteer" for service with the SS, often by direct threats on their families. This threat obliged the majority of them to remain in the German army. After the war, the few that survived were often accused of being traitors or collaborationists, because this tough situation was not known in the rest of France, and they had to face the incomprehension of many. In July , malgré-nous were released from Soviet captivity and sent to Algiers, where they joined the Free French Forces.

Nowadays history recognizes the suffering of those people, and museums, public discussions and memorials have been built to commemorate this terrible period of history of this part of Eastern France Alsace and Moselle.

Liberation of Strasbourg took place on 23 November In , a fire broke out in the Musée des Beaux-Arts and devastated a significant part of the collections. This fire was an indirect consequence of the bombing raids of This was done with welding torches, and a bad handling of these caused the fire.

In the s and s the city was enlarged by new residential areas meant to solve both the problem of housing shortage due to war damage and that of the strong growth of population due to the baby boom and immigration from North Africa: Between and , a new district has been built in the same vein, the Quartier des Poteries, south of Hautepierre. In , a violent hailstorm destroyed most of the historical greenhouses of the Botanical Garden and many of the stained glass windows of St.

Since , the European Parliament has met in Strasbourg, which was formally designated its official 'seat' at the Edinburgh meeting of the European Council of EU heads of state and government in December This position was reconfirmed and given treaty status in the Treaty of Amsterdam. However, only the four-day plenary sessions of the Parliament are held in Strasbourg each month, with all other business being conducted in Brussels and Luxembourg.

Those sessions take place in the Immeuble Louise Weiss, inaugurated in , which houses the largest parliamentary assembly room in Europe and of any democratic institution in the world. Before that, the EP sessions had to take place in the main Council of Europe building, the Palace of Europe, whose unusual inner architecture had become a familiar sight to European TV audiences. In , a terrorist plot to blow up the cathedral was prevented thanks to the cooperation between French and German police that led to the arrest in late of a Frankfurt-based group of terrorists.

On 6 July , during an open-air concert in the Parc de Pourtalès, a single falling Platanus tree killed thirteen people and injured In , after a long and careful restoration, the inner decoration of the Aubette, made in the s by Hans Arp, Theo van Doesburg, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp and destroyed in the s, was made accessible to the public again. The work of the three artists had been called "the Sistine Chapel of abstract art".

The city is chiefly known for its sandstone Gothic Cathedral with its famous astronomical clock, and for its medieval cityscape of Rhineland black and white timber-framed buildings, particularly in the Petite France district or Gerberviertel "tanners' district" alongside the Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral, where the renowned Maison Kammerzell stands out.

In addition to the cathedral, Strasbourg houses several other medieval churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have plagued the city: The Neo-Gothic church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Catholique there is also an adjacent church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Protestant serves as a shrine for several 15th-century wood worked and painted altars coming from other, now destroyed churches and installed there for public display.

Among the numerous secular medieval buildings, the monumental Ancienne Douane old custom-house stands out. The German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy buildings especially the current Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie, former town hall, on Place Gutenberg , as did the French Baroque and Classicism with several hôtels particuliers i. Other buildings of its kind are the "Hôtel de Hanau" , now the city hall , the Hôtel de Klinglin , now residence of the préfet , the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts , now residence of the military governor , the Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin , now seat of the administration of the Port autonome de Strasbourg etc.

The largest baroque building of Strasbourg though is the m ft long s main building of the Hôpital civil. Strasbourg also offers high-class eclecticist buildings in its very extended German district, the Neustadt, being the main memory of Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany proper suffered intensive damage during World War II.

Streets, boulevards and avenues are homogeneous, surprisingly high up to seven stories and broad examples of German urban lay-out and of this architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of European architecture as well as Neo-Egyptian, Neo-Greek and Neo-Babylonian styles. The former imperial palace Palais du Rhin, the most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this period.

But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times are the École internationale des Pontonniers the former Höhere Mädchenschule, girls college with its towers, turrets and multiple round and square angles[50] and the École des Arts décoratifs with its lavishly ornate façade of painted bricks, woodwork and majolica.

Notable streets of the German district include: Notable squares of the German district include: As for modern and contemporary architecture, Strasbourg possesses some fine Art Nouveau buildings such as the huge Palais des Fêtes and houses and villas like Villa Schutzenberger and Hôtel Brion , good examples of post-World War II functional architecture the Cité Rotterdam, for which Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural contest and, in the very extended Quartier Européen, some spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size, among which the European Court of Human Rights building by Richard Rogers is arguably the finest.

Other noticeable contemporary buildings are the new Music school Cité de la Musique et de la Danse, the Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain and the Hôtel du Département facing it, as well as, in the outskirts, the tramway-station Hoenheim-Nord designed by Zaha Hadid. The city has many bridges, including the medieval and four-towered Ponts Couverts that, despite their name, are no longer covered. Next to the Ponts Couverts is the Barrage Vauban, a part of Vauban's 17th-century fortifications, that does include a covered bridge.

Other bridges are the ornate 19th-century Pont de la Fonderie , stone and Pont d'Auvergne , iron , as well as architect Marc Mimram's futuristic Passerelle over the Rhine, opened in The largest square at the centre of the city of Strasbourg is the Place Kléber. Located in the heart of the city's commercial area, it was named after general Jean-Baptiste Kléber, born in Strasbourg in and assassinated in in Cairo.

In the square is a statue of Kléber, under which is a vault containing his remains. On the north side of the square is the Aubette Orderly Room , built by Jacques François Blondel, architect of the king, in — Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks, of which several are of cultural and historical interest: The futuristic Parc des Poteries is an example of European park-conception in the late s.

The Jardin des deux Rives, spread over Strasbourg and Kehl on both sides of the Rhine opened in and is the most extended hectare park of the agglomeration. The most recent park is Parc du Heyritz 8,7 ha , opened in along a canal facing the hôpital civil. Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries. Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Acheté par l'Union Maritime Méditerranéenne qui est une filiale des Messageries Maritimes, en vue de l'affecter au transport des troupes Légionnaires à destination de l'Indochine Française.

Il doit remplacer le Kouang-Si vendu à la démolition. Assure la ligne commerciale d'Indochine ainsi que les transports de troupes. Commandant Brignaudy copropriétaire 1. Repart de Tamatave pour Dakar avec environ passagers essentiellement militaires. Ramona donne la date du 25 janvier. Il est géré pendant la guerre par la compagnie anglaise Union Castle. Il navigue essentiellement dans l'Océan Indien et en Australie, participant en mai à la reconquête de la Birmanie.

Rendu à la France puis aux Messageries Maritimes il sera pris en charge à Anvers par le commandant Mauffret. Il partira pour Saïgon où il fera escale du 25 juillet au 6 août Puis Chang-Hai du 16 au 29 novembre.

Rejoint l'Indochine comme stationnaire. Rapatriera les troupes Françaises du Tonkin vers la Cochinchine. Dérouté de Djibouti sur Tamatave pour y débarquer le bataillon Volf primitivement destiné à Saïgon. Il est envoyé à Tamatave pour réduire la révolte du camp de Mouralangue.

Le commandant Mesney, transporte de Corée au Japon, le 2ème bataillon de Corée. Ce bataillon à plus de citations que d'hommes. Au départ de Fusan à 1heure du matin, deux généraux américains viennent saluer le bataillon. Il n'y avait aucun représentant des Autorités Françaises!! Ces bataillons de Corée formeront le régiment de Corée qui ira se battre en Indochine, notamment avec le G. Notizie certe delle sua vita si hanno, poi, solo a partire dal , quando fu accusato di oltraggio a pubblico ufficiale.

Il giudice incaricato presso il tribunale di Roma, con sentenza datata I testi di Nannetti raccontano di conquiste di stati immaginari da parete di altre nazioni immaginarie, di voli spaziali, di collegamenti telepatici, di personaggi fantastici, poeticamente descritti come alti, spinacei, naso ad Y, di armi ipertecnologiche, di misteriose combinazioni alchemiche, delle virtù magiche dei metalli, ecc. In seguito, fornito di carta e penna, produrrà circa 1. Prima di riaccendere il motore ribadisce il concetto: Ce ne sono almeno altri cinque.

Quelli di Shati, Qatrun, Ghat e Brak, nel sud ovest del paese, fanno capo a Sebha, nel senso che gli immigrati arrestati in queste località vengono poi smistati a Sebha dentro i container.

È il carcere che gode della peggiore fama, tra gli stessi libici. Ne hanno visitati sette. Ma riesce comunque a farci capire che il centro di Kufrah è il peggiore. Per capire il significato delle allusioni di Tarnish, rileggo le interviste fatte ai rifugiati eritrei ed etiopi nel Mi chiedevano di fare le flessioni. È il ritratto di un girone infernale.

Ma anche di un luogo di affari. Il prezzo di un uomo si aggira sui 30 dinari, circa 18 euro. Non sono stato autorizzato a visitare il centro di Kufrah e non ho potuto verificare di persona. Tuttavia il fatto che le versioni dei tanti rifugiati con cui ho parlato coincidano nel disegnare un luogo di abusi, violenze e torture, mi fa pensare che sia tutto vero.

Nel il governo Prodi smentiva la notizia, dicendo che si trattava di un centro di assistenza sanitaria. La domanda è la seguente: Nel , il prefetto Mario Mori, ex direttore del Sisde, informava il Copaco: Ma i funzionari della polizia italiana sapevano già tutto.

Già perché dal alcuni agenti fanno attività di formazione in Libia. La porta di ferro è chiusa a doppia mandata. Dalla piccola feritoia si affacciano i volti di due ragazzi africani e un di egiziano.

Chiedo ai tre di spostarsi. La vista si apre su due stanze di tre metri per quattro. Incrocio gli sguardi di una trentina di persone. A terra vedo degli stuoini e qualche lercio materassino in gommapiuma. Sui muri qualcuno ha scritto Guantanamo. Ma non siamo nella base americana. Siamo a Zlitan, in Libia. I prigionieri si accalcano contro la porta della cella. Non ricevono visite da mesi. Alcuni alzano la voce: Un ragazzo allunga la mano oltre quelli della prima fila e mi porge un pezzettino di cartone.

Il prefisso è quello del Gambia. Lo metto in tasca prima che la polizia se ne accorga. Il ragazzo si chiama Outhman. Mi chiede di dire a sua madre che è ancora vivo. È in carcere da cinque mesi. Fabrice invece non esce da questa cella da nove mesi. Entrambi sono stati arrestati durante le retate nei quartieri degli immigrati a Tripoli. Da anni la polizia libica è impegnata in simili operazioni. Da allora decine di migliaia di immigrati e rifugiati ogni anno sono arrestati dalla polizia libica e detenuti nei circa 20 centri fatiscenti sparsi per il paese, in attesa del rimpatrio.

Insieme a un collega tedesco, siamo i primi giornalisti autorizzati a visitare questi centri. Gift ha 29 anni. Stava passeggiando con il marito. Non avevano documenti e furono arrestati. Non lo vede da allora, lui nel frattempo è stato rimpatriato. Dice di avere lasciato i due figli a Tripoli. Di loro non ha più notizie. Viveva in Libia da tre anni. Lavorava come parrucchiera e non aveva nessuna intenzione di attraversare il Canale di Sicilia. Come molti degli immigrati detenuti dai nuovi gendarmi della frontiera italiana.

Ma è stato fermato in mare. Da quel giorno è rinchiuso a Zlitan. È spaventato a morte. Il direttore del campo, Ahmed Salim, sorride compiaciuto delle risposte e ci assicura che non sarà deportato. Nel giro di qualche settimana sarà trasferito al centro di detenzione di Misratah, km a est di Tripoli, dove sono concentrati i prigionieri di nazionalità eritrea. Nella provincia esistono altri tre centri di detenzione per stranieri, a Khums, Garabulli e Bin Ulid. Ma quanti sono i centri di detenzione in tutta la Libia?

Sulla base delle testimonianze raccolte in questi anni, ne abbiamo contati 28, perlopiù concentrati sulla costa. Ci sono dei veri e propri centri di raccolta, come quelli di Sebha, Zlitan, Zawiyah, Kufrah e Misratah, dove vengono concentrati i migranti e i rifugiati arrestati durante le retate o alla frontiera.

Poi ci sono strutture più piccole, come quelle di Qatrun, Brak, Shati, Ghat, Khums… dove gli stranieri sono detenuti per un breve periodo prima di essere inviati nei centri di raccolta. E poi ci sono le prigioni: Jadida, Fellah, Twaisha, Ain Zarah… Prigioni comuni, nelle quali intere sezioni sono dedicate alla detenzione degli stranieri senza documenti.

Anche nelle prigioni, le condizioni di detenzione sono pessime. Scabbia, parassiti e infezioni sono il minimo che ci si possa prendere. Molte donne sono colpite da infezioni vaginali. Koubros è riuscito a scappare da Twaisha poche settimane fa. È un rifugiato eritreo di 27 anni. Da Twaisha è uscito sulle stampelle. Non poteva pagare la cifra che gli aveva chiesto un poliziotto ubriaco. È uscito grazie a una colletta tra i prigionieri eritrei. Per corrompere una delle guardie carcerarie sono bastati dollari.

Lo incontro davanti alla chiesa di San Francesco, a Tripoli. Tadrous è uno di loro. È stato rilasciato lo scorso sei ottobre dal carcere di Surman. È uno dei pochi ad essere stato giudicato da una corte. La sua storia mi interessa. Era il giugno del Si erano imbarcati da Zuwarah, in Ma dopo poche ore decisero di invertire la rotta, perché il mare era in tempesta. Appena toccata terra furono arrestati e portati nella prigione di Surman.

Finiti i quali è stato rilasciato. Sorride scuotendo la testa. La risposta è negativa. La legge libica non prevede il gratuito patrocinio per reati passibili di pene inferiori a tre anni. Ci riceve nel suo studio in via primo settembre. Ci spiega che tutte le pratiche di arresto e detenzione sono svolte come procedure amministrative, senza nessuna convalida del giudice. Ma questa è la teoria. La pratica invece è quella delle retate casa per casa nei sobborghi di Tripoli.

Anche Jumaa Atigha è un avvocato di Tripoli. Lo scorso anno si è dimesso. Dal ha condotto una campagna che ha portato alla liberazione di 1. Ci descrive un paese in rapido cambiamento, ma ancora lontano da una situazione ideale sul fronte delle libertà individuali e politiche. Atigha conosce personalmente le condizioni di detenzione in Libia. Dal al è stato incarcerato, senza processo, come prigioniero politico. Ci dice che la tortura è comunemente praticata dalla polizia libica.

Abbiamo organizzato conferenze, visitato le prigioni, fatto dei corsi agli ufficiali di polizia. Attir la pensa allo stesso modo. I libici sono gentili con gli stranieri. Attir sa quello che dice. È entrato nelle carceri libiche come ricercatore nel , nel e nel Le sue parole mi fanno ripensare ai parrucchieri ghanesi nella medina, ai sarti chadiani, ai negozianti sudanesi, ai camerieri egiziani, alle donne delle pulizie marocchine e agli spazzini africani che armati di scope di bambù ogni notte ripuliscono le vie dei mercati della capitale.

Mentre gli eritrei si nascondono nei sobborghi di Gurji e Krimia, migliaia di immigrati africani vivono e lavorano, in condizioni di sfruttamento, ma con relativa tranquillità. Sicuramente per sudanesi e chadiani è tutto più facile. Parlano arabo e sono musulmani. La loro presenza in Libia è decennale e quindi tollerata. Lo stesso per egiziani e marocchini. Al contrario eritrei ed etiopi sono qui esclusivamente per il passaggio in Europa. Spesso non parlano arabo. E i loro nonni combattevano contro i libici a fianco delle truppe coloniali italiane.

E poi si sa che hanno spesso in tasca i soldi per la traversata. Per cui diventano facile mira di piccoli delinquenti e poliziotti corrotti. Per i nigeriani, e più in generale i sub-sahariani anglofoni, è ancora diverso. Che siano diretti in Europa oppure no, il loro destino in Libia si scontra sistematicamente contro il pregiudizio che si è venuto a creare contro i nigeriani, sulla scia di qualche fatto di cronaca nera. In Libia è uno dei massimi esperti. Ed è pronto a smentire la cifre che circolano in Europa.

In realtà non esistono statistiche di nessun tipo. Basta dare un occhio in giro. La popolazione libica è di cinque milioni e mezzo di persone. Gli stranieri non possono ragionevolmente essere più di un milione, compresi gli immigrati arabi egiziani, tunisini, algerini e marocchini. E la Libia ha bisogno di loro, perché è un paese sottopopolato e perché i libici non vogliono più fare lavori pesanti e mal retribuiti.

La Libia ha circa 1. Potrebbero servire a pattugliare meglio il tratto di mare tra la frontiera tunisina, Ras Jdayr, e Sabratah, ammette. Ma sono solo km. E le partenze si sono già spostate sul litorale a est di Tripoli, tra Khums e Zlitan, a più di km da Zuwarah.

Il dipartimento anti immigrazione di Zuwarah è nato nel Il numero di migranti arrestati è sceso da 5. Per il capo del dipartimento investigazioni, Sala el Ahrali, i dati indicano il successo delle misure repressive. Molti degli organizzatori dei viaggi sono stati arrestati, questo sarebbe il motivo per cui le partenze si sono ridotte.

E la costa è più controllata. Ogni dieci chilometri è installata una tenda, in mezzo alla spiaggia. Serve da appoggio ai fuoristrada della polizia, che da due anni pattugliano la litoranea, appoggiati da quattro motovedette della marina.

Il tratto di costa attualmente pattugliato è di una cinquantina di chilometri. E proprio da Mellitah parte il Greenstream , il gasdotto sottomarino più lungo del Mediterraneo.

Collega la Libia a Gela, in Sicilia. Ironia della sorte, corre lungo la stessa rotta che porta i migranti a Lampedusa.

Fui il primo giornalista italiano a visitarle nel insieme al collega e amico Roman Herzog. Abusi, pestaggi, violenze sulle donne erano la norma già allora.

Gli unici che si salvavano erano quelli che riuscivano a farsi mandare abbastanza soldi dai familiari in Europa con cui corrompevano facilmente le guardie colluse con le mafie del contrabbando per farsi rilasciare e tentare di nuovo la traversata. Con molti giornalisti e documentaristi abbiamo denunciato questa situazione fin dal Da quando Prodi e Amato negoziarono gli accordi di respingimento con Gheddafi a quando Berlusconi e Maroni li misero in pratica nel Da allora sembra non essere cambiato molto.

Dopodiché se il comportamento della Lifeline costituisca un reato lo deciderà un giudice anche alla luce di queste considerazioni. Perché quello che il ministro Salvini si dimentica di ricordare è che la Libia non è Malta, non è la Spagna, non è la Francia. La Libia di oggi non è un paese sicuro. Si aprono vie legali.

Perché, ministro, da contribuenti italiani non vogliamo finanziare altre prigioni in Libia. Vogliamo finanziare asili nido, scuole, parchi, ospedali. Non vogliamo continuare a finanziare le milizie colluse con le stesse mafie del contrabbando che dite di voler combattere. Oggi i libici, domani gli egiziani o i tunisini. Il mare è grande e incontrollabile. Calcolate quante persone ogni anno attraversano il mare per rimanere bloccati in Italia, senza documenti e senza lavoro. Calcolate quanti sono e rilasciate lo stesso numero di visti per ricerca di lavoro.

In caso contrario, signor ministro, siate più chiari. Dite semplicemente che di negri in Europa non volete vederne. Né per le vie legali né per quelle illegali.

Esiste invece una zona SAR maltese. Rispondono Chiara Favilli docente di diritto della Ue e Luca Sisto, direttore generale di Confitarma associazione degli armatori. On voit notamment que les Albanais qui ont reçu une décision de renvoi sont pratiquement tous renvoyés, contrairement aux Syriens par exemple oh Roma è riuscita a sottoscrivere solo pochi accordi di riammissione con molti dei paesi africani e, anche laddove questi esistono, la loro applicazione da parte di governi e autorità locali è discontinua e disomogenea.

Come mai tutte le operazioni Frontex hanno un nome legato o alla mitologia greca o a quella Romana? Claude Calame Migrant-es et Frontex: En naviguant un peu, quelques ressources que tu connais sans doute, voire certainement pour Eurosur. La succession des opérations Frontex, oui, je connais, et on les trouvent aussi sur seenthis, notamment ici: La gestione del sistema di accoglienza e asilo, tra status legale e accesso ai diritti, vuoti legislativi e sfide future.

Slogans, table de presse et diffusion de tracts étaient au programme de cet après-midi. Ce rassemblement avait été appelé par de nombreux syndicats, associations et collectifs. La violence, était ailleurs. Un rassemblement contre Frontex dispersé par la police sur le campus de Grenoble. Raison pour laquelle les syndicats et collectifs isérois ont décidé de faire entendre leur voix. En ligne de mire: Et une autre manifestante de renchérir: Mais permettez-nous de la contester.

Et pas les migrant. Leurs arguments et revendications sont légitimes. Mais vous avez préféré les balayer avec morgue et indignation, vous efforçant de faire passer les contestataires pour des ignares qui se trompent de combat. Vous avez fait le choix de ne pas vous prêter à cet exercice.

Vous pensez avoir raison, que les autres ont tort. Et le tour de passe passe est joué, la pilule prête à être avalée. Vous avez décidé que ce colloque aurait lieu comme prévu, coûte que coûte. Même si cela devait se passer sous haute protection policière. Les protéger de quoi? Défendre la liberté de parole des puissants et étouffer les voix minoritaires qui tentent de résister à ces puissants. Vous êtes sérieux , là? Une dizaine de personnes blessées.

Tout ça sous vos yeux. Ne rien faire face à ce déchaînement de violences que vous avez encouragé en vous mettant sous protection de la police est un choix. Vous avez fait le choix de continuer. Sans exprimer la moindre solidarité avec les personnes blessées ni chercher à vous enquérir de leur santé. Sans me trahir la moindre émotion. Il est contestable… mais la pilule ne passe vraiment pas. Pour finir en beauté et montrer comme vous êtes cohérent.

Vous présentant comme des victimes. Taisant le déchaînement de violences des flics. Et vous avez le droit avec vous, vous qui êtes des experts du droit. On dénombre une dizaine de blessés par la police, dont 2 lourdement touchés à la tête.

Il ressort de leurs témoignages que. Plus particulièrement, aux questions: Le Président Lévy a répondu: Par la présente, nous, enseignant. Néanmoins, elle a visiblement créé la panique chez les organisateurs du colloque, des participant. Plusieurs personnes - manifestant. Au-delà de la loi ORE, les étudiants grenoblois sont mobilisés contre Patrick Lévy et demandent sa démission.

Mais que cache cette chute spectaculaire? La Cimade évoque quelques facteurs pour saisir cette réalité: The Future of the Schengen Area: Also, most recent policy proposals in the field of internal police checks are assessed in light of relevant EU legal standards.

The paper also questions the legality of the border walls and fences, which have been recently erected at the EU external borders and within the Schengen area. We should be clear that the reimposition of controls by say France do not effect everyone equally.

This differentiation matters because this is not an equal control, but one based on race and class. Elle en a informé la Commission européenne. Une mauvaise idée, selon le directeur de Frontex, qui plaide pour une meilleure protection des frontières externes. Et bien sûr, plus de moyens à Frontex! La transformation en cours de Frontex en Agence européenne de garde-frontières et de garde-côtes en est une. This article describes the main features of the new agency, focusing on two key issues.

Second, it explores whether, and to what extent, the reform of the EU border agency has been accompanied by the development of mechanisms to exercise effective democratic and judicial control over its activities. The discussion concludes by arguing that the views of those who believe that the evolution of EU justice and home affairs policies does not raise particular challenges for the exercise of democratic control over EU security agencies and the protection of fundamental rights during their operations are fundamentally flawed, and that new ways to ensure proper scrutiny over security policies that take account of the peculiarities of EU institutional structure need to be devised.

Frontex loue les fameux drones israéliens pour des essais de sécurité aux frontières. Les drones Heron sont bien connus pour avoir été utilisés contre les Palestiniens, ce qui multiplie encore les objections contre leur usage déjà controversé dans la sécurité frontalière.

Le pognon qui doit partir là dedans au lieu de contribuer à la paix et à la justice sociale, humaine et économique Un texte écrit par le grand chef de Frontex lui-même At the same time, returning to the old system of checking passports and customs papers at every border within the EU would not only damage mutual trust but could do irreparable harm to our economies.

This was due in part to the influx of refugees that began with the deterioration of the situation in Syria. Then there were the terror attacks that have taken place on European soil with horrifying frequency have aroused fears for security, a topic that surveys show is high on the list of priorities of EU citizens. In seeking remedies, we must not frame migration as a security problem. Indeed, conflating these issues would play into the hands of the very extremists we are struggling to defeat.

However, we need stable borders, and for this, we need new and innovative European solutions. It is a tough task. But our increased budget and expanded mandate give us invaluable tools to assess weaknesses in the border control capabilities of member states and address them by making specific recommendations, such as modernising equipment, deploying additional officers to particular sections of the border, providing training to frontline practitioners, or in some places improving the reception and registration facilities for newly arrived migrants.

With a coastline of almost 66, km and land borders of more than 13, km, Europe is only as secure as its external borders. And on the basis of our own findings and analysis, we know there are indeed many dangers lurking, from the human traffickers through to the many tonnes of hard drugs and weapons seized with our help on their way into the EU. The new mandate has also allowed us to establish a large pool of officers committed by national authorities, who can be rapidly deployed in case of proven threats.

So Frontex is increasingly moving from a supporting role to coordinating and complementing the work of our partners in the member states, and this trend will strengthen further over the next decade. However, we will still remain only one piece of the puzzle. Our colleagues in the European Commission and Parliament are another. It is together with them, and only together, that Frontex forms the European border and coast guard. Of concern to me is not so much that the errors at the root of this critique indicate a lack of understanding of our work, but — far more importantly — of the issues at stake.

For border security is not a matter of encouraging unfounded suspicions, or indiscriminately excluding those who need our help. In fact, it is quite the reverse. By improving our risk analysis, intelligence sharing, and surveillance techniques, we ensure that the needs of people seeking international protection from war or persecution are met, while those who could endanger our security are detected and dealt with appropriately.

And strengthening our borders is not just about irregular migrants. And the EU is at an advanced stage of establishing a system similar to the one used in the US, to check that visitors from countries exempt from visa requirements do not pose a threat of any kind during their stay.

As Frontex continues to expand, there is nonetheless one thing that will not change. Indeed, I would go so far as to say that respect for fundamental rights is an integral component of effective border management.

If we want to put an end to the drowning in the Mediterranean and the deaths in the Sahel, we need to work harder and cooperate more closely to eliminate the root causes of migration, from armed conflict through to famine. At the same time and as reiterated by the European Commission on numerous occasions , we need to offer those in need of international protection legal paths to enter the EU. This would not only save lives but also cut off financing for the criminal smuggling rings currently making a fortune out of the misery of their fellow humans.

So we are speaking here not just about migration or borders, but about the EU and our own future. Some people took the events of and the ongoing crisis to claim that the EU has failed as a project and belongs on the rubbish heap of history.

I believe the opposite. There is no single country that can safeguard its citizens from internationally organised crime, and at the same time meet its humanitarian obligations to assist those fleeing persecution. If protecting our external borders and safeguarding free movement really matters to us, then it is time to speak out for Europe, and for the additional resources needed at the regional and national level to avoid a repeat of This would serve the interests not just of a few, but of everyone in the EU.

Here is the correct version of your title, Mr fabriceleggeri: Frontex should have been disbanded in because in 10 years since its creation it had undermined everything that is worthwhile about Europe, including freedom of movement, and betrayed the EU to promote the corporate plunder of its resources by security and technology firms. It is currently the agency for the institutionalisation of racism and discrimination, for the systematic violation of human rights, for the funding of dictatorships and authoritarian regimes to entrap their citizens and promote racism against foreigners who may be making their way towards Europe, for the subordination of humanity to procedures to enable its control technologies to function and mistreat human beings who disobey.

Its role alongside the Commission in the European Agenda on Migration has been subversive and has successfully pushed Italy and other states towards intolerance and in a nationalist-fascist direction for the purpose of fighting so-called irregular migration. What it terms safeguarding borders means mass murder, the mass detention and abuse of people and the violation of every existing right and legal safeguard to disempower its targets.

Leggeri and Avramopoulos need to be held to account for this The economic and ethical cost of what they are doing is enormous Sur les migrants arrivés en Italie depuis , la plupart ont traversé la Méditerranée. Marchands phéniciens, arabes ou grecs, chevaliers francs revenant de croisade, pirates barbaresques, pêcheurs en détresse: Lampedusa était leur île. Elle appartenait à tous et à personne. Par-delà Lampedusa, dans lequel il jouait son propre rôle, lui a valu une notoriété internationale.

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